NMNS was constructed in several phases:
The Science Center, Space Theater and Administration Building cover a total area of 9,256 square meters and were built at a cost of more than NT$460 million.
The Life Science Hall measures 9,917 square meters and its construction cost is NT$1.13 billion.
The Human Cultures Hall and the Global Environment Hall occupy an area of 39,260 square meters and were completed at a cost of NT$3.3 billion.
The 44,856 square meters of land upon which the Botanical Garden sits was originally set aside for the establishment of No. 54 Park. The Taichung City Government commissioned NMNS to develop this site.
The 921 Earthquake Museum of Taiwan began operation on September 21, 2004. This site, representative of the destruction of the 921 Earthquake, was placed under the management of NMNS. Its total area measures 49,776 square meters with 14,842 square meters of floor space. All of the current facilities were completed in 2007.
Establishment of the Administration Center of Natural Science Education Parks On January 1, 2013, the Fonghuanggu Bird Park became a subordinate unit of NMNS and was renamed the Fonghuanggu Bird and Ecology Park. On May 1, 2013, the Chelungpu Fault Preservation Park, located in Zhushan Town of Nantou County, officially opened to the public. Together with the 921 Earthquake Museum of Taiwan, they form a comprehensive network for environmental and geological preservation and natural sciences education.